Gum Disease: Genetic Correlation Studies

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Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) for periodontitis have investigated measures, including the presence or absence of disease, quantitative measures of periodontal status, severe presentations of disease, molecular and microbial intermediaries of disease and composite phenotypes such as GWAS for principal components which aim to capture multiple facets of periodontal health. Recent GWAS of Chronic Periodontitis (CP) offer rich data sources for the investigation of candidate genes, functional elements, and pathways . GWAS data of CP and periodontal pathogen colonization have found susceptibility variants for periodontal disease (PD).

Periodontitis is shown to have correlation with range of adverse health traits and outcomes in observational studies, including acute endpoints of cardiovascular disease. For the periodontitis/loose teeth combined analysis, such genetic correlations were identified for 31 traits. This suggests shared genetic contributions to the same biological factors and also can be due to biological pathways which pose dental diseases as a risk factor for overall health outcomes.

For periodontitis the heritability was lower than other dental traits. This might be due to heterogeneity introduced by the different approaches to periodontal disease classification, different patterns of periodontal treatment and varying distributions of age in the cohorts or gene–environment interactions not accounted in the study design.

The top gene sets included, severe CP (“endoplasmic reticulum membrane,” “cytochrome P450,” “microsome,” and “oxidation reduction”) and moderate CP (“regulation of gene expression,” “zinc ion binding,” “BMP signaling pathway,” and “ruffle”).

GENOMEDEN -march issue

Author: Dr Rujuta Patil, Assistant Editor, GENOMEDEN

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